You're persistent, I'll give you that.
You can include multiple partial views in any view, so yes, you can use the same header and footer for example in every page.
You place all view elements partial or otherwise in the views folder.
You should not use the database layer inside the view, doing so would violate the point of using the MVC principle in the first place. I'm not even entirely sure you can, even if you wanted too.
Remember, ALL data must be obtained with a model, and passed by the controller to the view.
All CSS, JS and images must be placed in your public root, remember to use CI's base_url() function in your view to help you set the paths to these files in your views.
I'm unsure of what you mean with regards to your config statement.