I would assume that the DNS is being controlled via WHM. I'm not sure how I would check this. I did use domain dossier (very cool tool btw), but I don't know what I am looking for to confirm that my WHM is actually controlling my domain's DNS records. The NS records shown by domain dossier do match the ones in WHM.
After some more observation I did notice something. In cpanel, it shows that the last IP to log in to cpanel was 127.0.0.1 and that the server's dedicated IP address is that same 10.x.x.x IP. These values seem strange as well. At my previous web host, the last IP to log in was my IP and the server's dedicated IP was its public IP. Could it be that the DNS records really are pointing to the public IP, but for whatever reason it's showing up as the private IP? Seems wacky.