Is there a method about knowing that you are getting bad feedback or no feedback about you whenever new employers are asking for you to present employer?
and, also what to do in case one is getting bad feedback for any reason.
Please think and reply.
Point is no company/HR tell that I got bad feedback so I have not hired you. In small company it can be internal politics, someone else problem when you go and disclose about politics or company do not want you to go and for other reasons, you can get bad or no feedback!
Even though companies are not allowed to say much over the phone, there is a lot that can be read in tone. I always have someone I know call my previous employers prior to putting out my resume. And even though I am pretty sure about my references, I have someone check those for me too. I've never had a problem, but it makes me feel better knowing what potential employers will hear.
I would also include the potential for future employers looking online for details about you. It's common place for people in the workplace to perform background checks on your social networking profiles, websites or anything they can find which relates to you in a way to identify what kind of candidate you are. Perhaps their getting worried about how you're portraying yourself online and that's reflecting on you as an individual during the Interview. What my advice would be is to have a look at anywhere you participate regularly (or even occasionally), see if there's anything which may portray you negatively and either try to deal with it (by removing the offending content) or try and neutralise it by offering feedback as to your position. Unless you ask your ex-employer what they said you're unlikely to find out what someone says confidentially about you to a future employer and you may well need to reconsider your reference (if you had issues at your last workplace).
If I understand your question correctly, you are concerned about finding out what people are saying about you when they call a reference?
For most more established companies, a reference check does not include feedback. I am allowed to verify if someone worked for me, nothing more. This is a good thing for a bad employee, or someone who as you put it, left under bad political reasons, as there's nothing to be said about the issue.
Professional references are generally where the real info comes from. These are people you pick and even if you are asked for your last manager only, there's flexibility with the right approach (a former manager who can't speak isn't useful, one who left to some unknown isn't useful). If your professional reference is speaking poorly of you, there's a big problem in you and who you are picking. Generally this becomes obvious as the company hiring you is happy, gets to the reference check and says no thank you. They may not say why but it should be somewhat apparent.
Short of pushing for a reason you won't know for sure no matter what, you simply have to use your judgement, think about the context you left under, and pick your names properly (which is why the idea of references makes me laugh).