The function in question was called with the new operator, in which case this points to a new object being constructed.
The function in question is a member of an object, in which case this points to the object.
Rule 2 should be disregarded whenever the function involved is being called asynchronously, such as in a click handler or setTimeout. For example:
Person.getName(); // 'this' points to Person
setTimeout(Person.getName, 1000); // 'this' points to the global object
I'm not sure I get it right, I may be wrong, you're phrasing may be off too... to note, the this keyword will only work inside functions, and will only be used to reference an object, not a property. But you can use this to reference the object, and then use ".", like for any other named object, to look for a property of that object.